BEDWETTING

BEDWETTING What is it?Incontinence at night after the age of five or six years. Causes: Delayed maturity of control over bladder, bedwetting runs in families and is slightly more common in boys. Anxiety,  e.g. the arrival of a new baby, separation from the parents, family tensions and urinary infection. Possible complications: None Treatment in the home: Do not give the child anything to drink after the evening meal, wake the child in the late evening so that he may use the toilet. Do not scold or punish the child for wet nights: praise him

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BITES AND STINGS

BITES AND STINGS What is it?Bites and stings can range from mild and almost unnoticed to the extremely serious. There are two types of bites- those from non-poisonous creatures such as dogs and cats and those from venomous creatures such as snakes and spiders. Stings are caused by insects and some fish. Danger Signs: if the victim of a bite or sting shows signs of acute distress such as facial swelling, difficulty in breathing or extreme pain, call a doctor immediately or take the victim to hospital. Bee stings: Remove bee stings with

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BOILS

BOILS What is it?A boil is an abscess or pocket of infection around the base of a hair follicle. Bacteria accumulate to form thick yellow or white pus within the inflamed area. A Carbuncle is a collection of boils. Symptoms: Starts as a red tender lump, which may throb. Gradually becomes larger and more painful. As pus collects, it develops a white or yellow head. The pus may burst or slowly disappear on its own. Causes: Infection by bacteria. Treatment in the home: Most boils disappear on their own within a week. Do

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BREAST ABSCESS

BREAST ABSCESS What is it?A Breast abscess occurs when infection enters the breast often through a cracked nipple, which is usually due to breast-feeding. Symptoms: A red tender swelling or lump in the breast. The glands under the arm next to the affected breast may also be tender. Fever and Pain can be severe. Possible complications: if not treated, a large amount of pus may collect. Treatment in the home: Make sure the breast is well supported. Take painkillers in recommended doses. Massaging the breast during breast-feeding can help to expel all

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BRONCHITIS

BRONCHITIS What is it?Bronchitis is an inflammation of the mucous lining of the main air passage of the lungs. There are two main types- acute and chronic bronchitis.Acute Bronchitis is a sudden onset of chest symptoms in normally healthy person. Chronic bronchitis is usually associated with heavy smoking. ACUTE BRONCHITIS Symptoms: A productive cough with grey, watery phlegm, Breathlessness, wheezing, pain in the upper chest, made worse by coughing. Fever.Causes: Untreated respiratory infections such as a head cold or sinusitis which spread to the bronchial tubes.Possible complications: BronchopneumoniaTreatment in the home: Acute

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BUNIONS

BUNIONS What is it?In a bunion the big toe joins the foot at an angle rather than in a straight line. The bony base of the twisted big toe is pushed out beyond the normal outline of the foot, and an unsightly lump, known as a bunion is formed. Symptoms: Misshapen Feet, Discomfort when wearing shoes, Pain, especially if the small fluid-filled cushion over the joint becomes inflamed. Hard skin may form over the bunion. Causes: Bunions often run in families. Ill-fitting shoes. Shoes with very high heels and pointed toes aggravate the problem.

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BED SORES

BED SORES What is it?Bedsores often occur in patients confined to bed. They are painful and usually occur on the elbows, knees, heels, shoulder blades, hips and buttocks. Symptoms: Starts of as a patch of tender, red inflamed skin, later the skin becomes purple, it cracks and weeping ulcers develops. Causes: Irritation and continuous pressure on body parts, bedclothes pressing on knees and toes. Possible complications: Ulceration and infection. When to consult a doctor: As soon as the ulcers appear. What the doctor may do: Prescribe appropriate treatment depending on the severity of ulceration

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BAD BREATH

BAD BREATH Symptoms: Offensive-smelling breath of which one may be unaware until pointed out by someone else. Causes: Inflammation of the gums, mouth ulcers, Tooth decay, and decaying tooth particles stuck between the teeth, aromatic foods such as garlic and onion, smoking, fever, sinusitis and empty stomach. Possible complications: Social offence. Treatment in the home: Good dental hygiene, infections in the mouth should be treated. When to consult a doctor/dentist: If bad breath continues, despite home treatment.

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BACKACHE

BACKACHE What is it?Pain or stiffness in the back that may be continuous or intermittent. Symptoms: Pain, together with stiffness may develop slowly or suddenly. It may be a continuous ache, or it may only occur when in a certain position. The pain may vary, Not only in intensity, but also in position. Movement, as well as coughing or sneezing sometimes aggravates the pain. Causes: Long term poor posture, Strain or injury to the muscles or ligaments of the back or the muscles of the abdomen, Injury to the cushions or discs between the

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