CHICKEN POX

CHICKEN POXWhat is it?Chicken pox is an infectious childhood disease. More than 90% of cases occur in Children between the ages of one and fourteen.Symptoms: There is an incubation of between 7 and 21 days before symptoms appear. A day or two before the rash appears, your child may feel generally unwell, with a sore throat, headache and fever. Small red, fluid-filled spots appear on the body. After a few days the spots dry out and crust over. They are very itchy. New crops of spots appear every few days-all stages of

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COLD SORES

COLD SORESWhat they are: Cold sores are small, blistering sores that appear on the face, around the lips and nose.Symptoms: An itching and burning feeling before the sore appears. Painful red blisters. Within a few days of their appearance the blisters burst, weep and dry out. The wet blisters are very infectious. In children a crop of blisters may appear inside the mouth and around the gums. The child may be feverish and generally unwell.Causes: The Herpes simplex virus. Outbreak of blisters may be caused by being run down-Stress and other

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COLDS AND FLU

COLDS AND FLUWhat is it?A cold or flu is a viral infection of the nose and throat. Generally flu symptoms are more severe than those of the common cold.Symptoms: The major symptoms include, Sneezing, sore throat, watering eyes, Runny nose, Headache, Slight fever, Hoarseness, Coughing and muscular pains.Causes: A number of different viruses. Contact with people who have the virus.Treatment in the home: Stay at home to protect others from infection. Take an aspirin or paracetamol in recommended doses to relieve headache, muscular pains and fever. Do not give aspirin to

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CONJUNCTIVITIS

CONJUNCTIVITISWhat is it?Conjunctivitis is an inflammation of the transparent mucous membrane that covers the eyeball and the lining of the eyelids.Symptoms: The eyes are red and inflamed, they feel dry and scratchy, and discharge of yellow pus, the discharge causes the lids to become sticky and crusted particularly overnight. Infectious conjunctivitis is contagious.Causes: Bacterial or viral infection, foreign body in the eye, hay fever or other allergy.Treatment in the home: Keep the eyes free of discharge by regularly wiping them with clean, moistened cotton gauze swabs. To prevent infection spreading, do

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CONSTIPATION

CONSTIPATION What is it?Constipation is the infrequent passage of hard faeces, usually with some difficulty or pain.Symptoms: Difficult and infrequent passing if feaces. Abdominal discomfort.Causes: A diet low in fibre is the most common cause. Low fluid intake, certain medicines, particularly medicines containing codeine or iron. Pregnancy, Piles, anal Fissures, laxative abuse and lack of physical movement and exercise.Treatment in the home: Increase the fibre in your diet by including foods such as high-fibre cereals, wholewheat bread, peas, beans, apricots and bananas. Drink more fluids. Laxatives are one of the most commonly used

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CORNS AND CALLUSES

CORNS AND CALLUSESWhat is it?Corns and calluses are areas of the skin that have thickened because of constant pressure. Corns are small and develop on the toes. Calluses are bigger and commonly develop on the soles of feet.Symptoms: Area painful on pressure.Causes: Pressure from wearing new or ill-fitting shoes. People, who have less cushioning tissue then normal between the bones and skin of their feet, develop corns and calluses more easily than others.Treatment in the home: Wear comfortable shoes. Corn pads ease pressure and pain. Corn plasters and salicylic acid encourage

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COUGHS

COUGHSWhat is it?Coughing is a protective mechanism to keep the respiratory passage clear for breathing.Symptoms: Dry cough, producing no phlegm, wet cough, producing phlegm. Wheezy cough associated flu and fever symptoms.CausesDry cough or cough bringing up white mucus: colds, flu, sinusitis, laryngitis, smoking and allergy.Wet cough and breathlessness: Bronchitis, PneumoniaWheezy cough: AsthmaSevere cough for several weeks or months: Chronic bronchitis, tuberculosis, lung cancer.Treatment in the home: A non productive or dry cough can be treated with a cough suppressant. In a wet cough, a bronchodilator or expectorant is helpful

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CROUP

CROUPWhat is it?Croup is a respiratory condition characterised by a barking seal-like cough and laboured breathing.Symptoms: Croup attacks usually occur at night. The child wakes with a sudden loud crowing noise which becomes louder when he inhales. The child is alarmed and bewildered, fever.Causes: Usually due to swelling of the lining of the air passages. Occurs soon after the onset of an upper respiratory tract infection.Treatment in the home: Croup can be treated at home if it is mild, be calm and reassure your child. The condition worsens if the child

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CUTS, GRAZERS BLISTERS

CUTS, GRAZERS AND BLISTERSWhat is it?Slight bleeding from minor cut or graze usually stops spontaneously within a few minutes as the blood cloths and does not require medical attention.Treatment in the home: Clean the dirty cuts. If left in the wound, dirt is likely to cause infection and scarring. Run water over the cut. Then clean the wound with hydrogen peroxide solution (20 volumes), available from your pharmacist. It is best applied undiluted, on a gauze swab directly on the wound. It will foam and create a burning sensation. This method

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CYSTITIS

CYSTITISWhat is it?Cystitis is an inflammation of the bladder.Symptoms: A burning sensation as urine passed, frequent urge to urinate, passing of small amounts of urine. Cloudy, Blood stained and/or strong smelling urine. Fever, abdominal or pelvic pain may be present.Causes: Inflammation of the bladder.Treatment in the home: Drink plenty of fluids-4 to 5 litres very 24hours. Mild pain killers such as aspirin and paracetamol may ease discomfort. Empty the bladder completely each time when passing urine. Empty the bladder after intercourse. After the bowel action, wipe the anus from front to back. Do

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